What is Python?
Python is a high-level, interpreted, interactive and object-oriented scripting language. Python is designed to be highly readable. It uses English keywords frequently where as other languages use punctuation, and it has fewer syntactical constructions than other languages.
What is the purpose of PYTHONPATH environment variable?
PYTHONPATH − It has a role similar to PATH. This variable tells the Python interpreter where to locate the module files imported into a program. It should include the Python source library directory and the directories containing Python source code. PYTHONPATH is sometimes preset by the Python installer
What is the purpose of PYTHONSTARTUP,PYTHONCASEOK,PYTHONHOME,PYTHONSTARTUP environment variables?
- PYTHONSTARTUP − It contains the path of an initialization file containing Python source code. It is executed every time you start the interpreter. It is named as .pythonrc.py in Unix and it contains commands that load utilities or modify PYTHONPATH
- PYTHONCASEOK − It is used in Windows to instruct Python to find the first case-insensitive match in an import statement. Set this variable to any value to activate it.
- PYTHONHOME − It is an alternative module search path. It is usually embedded in the PYTHONSTARTUP or PYTHONPATH directories to make switching module libraries easy.
How is memory managed in Python?
- Python memory is managed by Python private heap space. All Python objects and data structures are located in a private heap. The programmer does not have an access to this private heap and interpreter takes care of this Python private heap.
- The allocation of Python heap space for Python objects is done by Python memory manager. The core API gives access to some tools for the programmer to code.
- Python also have an inbuilt garbage collector, which recycle all the unused memory and frees the memory and makes it available to the heap space.
Whenever Python exits, why isn’t all the memory de-allocated?
- Whenever Python exits, especially those Python modules which are having circular references to other objects or the objects that are referenced from the global namespaces are not always de-allocated or freed.
- It is impossible to de-allocate those portions of memory that are reserved by the C library.
- On exit, because of having its own efficient clean up mechanism, Python would try to de-allocate/destroy every other object.
How will you reverse a list?
list.reverse() − Reverses objects of list in place.
How will you remove last object from a list?
list.pop(obj=list[-1]) − Removes and returns last object or obj from list.
What are negative indexes and why are they used?
- The sequences in Python are indexed and it consists of the positive as well as negative numbers. The numbers that are positive uses ‘0’ that is uses as first index and ‘1’ as the second index and the process goes on like that.
- The index for the negative number starts from ‘-1’ that represents the last index in the sequence and ‘-2’ as the penultimate index and the sequence carries forward like the positive number.
- The negative index is used to remove any new-line spaces from the string and allow the string to except the last character that is given as S[:-1]. The negative index is also used to show the index to represent the string in correct order.
What is the difference between range & xrange?
- For the most part, xrange and range are the exact same in terms of functionality. They both provide a way to generate a list of integers for you to use, however you please. The only difference is that range returns a Python list object and x range returns an xrange object.
- This means that xrange doesn’t actually generate a static list at run-time like range does. It creates the values as you need them with a special technique called yielding. This technique is used with a type of object known as generators. That means that if you have a really gigantic range you’d like to generate a list for, say one billion, xrange is the function to use.
- This is especially true if you have a really memory sensitive system such as a cell phone that you are working with, as range will use as much memory as it can to create your array of integers, which can result in a Memory Error and crash your program. It’s a memory hungry beast.
What is pickling and unpickling?
Pickle module accepts any Python object and converts it into a string representation and dumps it into a file by using dump function, this process is called pickling. While the process of retrieving original Python objects from the stored string representation is called unpickling.